Russia’s Transformation from Big Empire to Republic : A Historical Journey


Russia is a large country that spans most of eastern Europe and northern Asia. Russia, previously the dominant country of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R., sometimes known as the Soviet Union), attained independence with the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991.

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About Russia Territory

Superlatives abound in Russia. Its territory is about twice as big as that of Canada, the second-largest nation in the world. It includes all of northern Asia, 11 time zones, and the eastern half of Europe. It has a wide variety of ecosystems and landforms, including deserts, semiarid steppes, dense woods, and Arctic tundra. The Volga, Europe’s longest river, and Ladoga, its biggest lake, are both located in this country. Baikal, the deepest lake in the world, is located in Russia, which also boasts the lowest temperature ever recorded outside of the North and South Poles.

Russia’s population is quite diversified. There are more than 120 additional ethnic groups present, speaking various languages, and adhering to various religious and cultural traditions. The majority are ethnic Russians. The majority of Russians live in the European sector of the nation, particularly in the prosperous area around the capital, Moscow. The two most significant financial and cultural hubs in the country are Moscow and St. Petersburg (formerly Leningrad), two of the most beautiful cities in the world.

Although Russians are also numerous across Asia, a continuous influx of ethnic Russians and Russian-speaking people moved into Siberia, where modern towns like Vladivostok and Irkutsk are flourishing, starting in the 17th century and particularly noticeable during most of the 20th century.

the country winters are notorious for saving the nation from foreign invasion on several occasions because of the country’s harsh environment. The land offers a plentiful supply of food and commodities, including large quantities of oil, gas, and precious metals, even though the climate makes living more challenging. However, despite the country’s plenty of riches, most of its citizens have not had an easy existence.

In fact, most of the country history has been a sobering narrative of a small but extremely wealthy and powerful elite reigning over a sizable portion of their destitute and helpless countrymen. Serfdom persisted well into the modern age; under the Soviet Union’s communist reign (1917–91), notably during Joseph Stalin’s protracted dictatorship, enslavement took a harsher and stricter form.

as Republic

The Russian Republic was founded just after the 1917 Russian Revolution, and in 1922 it was transformed into a union republic. In the years following World War II, the country had a significant role in world events as it engaged in a Cold War conflict with the United States. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the country teamed up with a number of other former Soviet republics to create the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), a loose alliance.

Russians had to endure a generally weak economy, high inflation, and a variety of social ills for much of the postcommunist era, despite the fact that the collapse of Soviet-style communism and the subsequent collapse of the Soviet Union brought about profound political and economic changes, including the beginnings of the formation of a large middle class.

The Austrian statesman Klemens, Fürst (prince) von Metternich said in the 19th century: “Russia is never as strong as she appears, and never as weak as she appears.” Despite such serious issues, Russia showed promise of regaining its position as a global power.

The country has a long history of being exceptional in all fields of the arts and sciences. The works and music of such luminaries of world culture as Anton Chekhov, Aleksandr Pushkin, Leo Tolstoy, Nikolay Gogol, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, and Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky were created by pre-revolutionary Russian society.

The writers Maxim Gorky, Boris Pasternak, and Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, as well as the musicians Dmitry Shostakovich and Sergey Prokofiev, all wrote about the 1917 revolution and the changes it brought.

The late Soviet and postcommunist eras also saw a resurgence of interest in previously outlawed artists like the poets Vladimir Mayakovsky and Anna Akhmatova, as well as the emergence of fresh voices like novelist Victor Pelevin and writer and journalist Tatyana Tolstaya, whose beloved celebration of the beginning of winter in St. Petersburg hints at the tenacity and fortitude of her people:

See Moldova, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Ukraine for information on the geography and history of the other former Soviet republics. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is another option.


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